Triphysaria pusilla

Explanation: point at the photo
Heide-Jørgensen H S, Kuijt J. 1993. Epidermal derivatives as xylem elements and transfer cells: a study of the host-parasite interface of two species of Triphysaria (Scrophulariaceae). - Protoplasma 174: 173-183.

Haustoria of Triphysaria pusilla and T. versicolor subsp. faucibarbata from a natural habitat were analysed by light and electron microscopy. The keel-shaped edge of the secondary haustorium generally splits the epidermis and cortex of the host root parallel to the root axis, and penetrates to the host vascular tissue. Anticlinally elongated epidermal cells of the haustorium constitute most of the host/parasite interface. Some of these epidermal cells are divided by oblique cell walls. Some of their oblique daughter cells as well as some undivided epidermal cells differentiate into xylem elements. Single epidermal cells occasionally intrude into the vascular tissue of the host and individual host cells can be invaded. The surface area of the plasmalemma in parasitic parenchymatous interface cells is increased by the differentiation of wall labyrinths characteristic of transfer cells and by the development of membrane-lined cytoplasmic tubules or flattened sacs which become embedded in the partly lignified interface cell-wall. Mycorrhizal fungal hyphae enter the xylem bridge in some haustoria. Implications of these observations for the function of the haustorium are discussed.

Keywords: Epidermis; Haustorial interface; Hemiparasite; Orthocarpus; Transfer cells; Triphysaria; Xylem elements.

Missing abbreviation in Figure legends page 174: L, lignified secondary cell wall in xylem element.

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